The population and the economic activities
In the 16th century, the Basque Provinces, with around 60,000 inhabitants per province, had an average density of 30 inhabitants/km², which was relatively high for the time.
Nafarroa, with around 145,000 inhabitants, had around 12 inhabitants/km². During the first two thirds of the 16th century, the demographic expansion of the previous century continued, in a context of economic growth in agriculture, industry, trade and fishing. In the 17th century, the economic crisis which had started in the last few decades of the 16th century continued.